Sunday, July 21, 2019

How Motherhood Impacts On Womens Career Choices Social Work Essay

How Motherhood Impacts On Womens Career Choices Social Work Essay In most contemporary industrialised nations, womens participation rates have been rising. Since the 1980s, womens employment has become more continuous, even among mothers with children. (Lewis, 2009:27) However, despite of the optimistic rising employment rate among women, the career break due to motherhood still has a major impact on womens careers. Some women opt for part-time jobs after giving birth to child/children while some might exit the labour till their children reach school ages. This essay aims to examine the impact of motherhood on womens career in terms of womens work and care decision and type of works mothers do under different contingencies. As Windebank (2001:269) points out that there are great variations in mothers employment participation rates and career patterns across countries, this essay mainly focuses on mothers career choices and patterns in two countries, namely Sweden (a generous welfare country which striving for womens equality) and the United Kingdom . The first part of the essay briefly talks about the general impacts of motherhood on womens career followed by the descriptions of womens career choices (e.g. work or care decision) and career patterns (e.g. full-time VS. part-time, types of work mothers do) in the two countries mentioned. In the final part, the possible explanations to the patterns found in both countries will be addressed, such as the economic incentive, social norms, institutional context, and womens education level. And the essay will be concluded by summarizing the impacts of motherhood on womens career and discussing its implications for policy makers. Motherhoods Impact on Womens Career The evidence (Vlasblom and Schippers, 2006:335) shows that motherhood could have impacts on womens participation rate both before and after the childbirth. In their article, the female participation rates in all three countries, namely the Netherlands, Germany and the United Kingdom, have declined since 12 months before the childbirth and never return to the original level 24 months after the childbirth. Hewlett (2005) also states that 37% of women take some kind of break from work to achieve appropriate work-life balance. Although 93% of those women who taken a break after give a birth to children want to re-enter the job market, only 74% are successful, among these only 40% return to full time work. The statistics suggests that motherhood does affect womens career to a different degrees and it could last over a long period of time. In general, motherhood itself presents four choices for women. First, women could remain in their full-time jobs after giving birth to their child/children. Second, they could choose a more flexible job or a part-time work to achieve work life balance after becoming a mother. Third, women could choose to exit the labour force permanently for their families. Forth, women could leave the labour market temporarily and return to work after a while (e.g. when their child/children reach school age) (Vlasblom and Schippers, 2006:330). However, women who take the last option might find difficult to return to the labour market. As Joshi et al (1996) point out that losing of tie with the labour market due to the complete exit could depreciate womens human capital and make future entrance difficult. Therefore, the longer a mother is out of the labour force, the harder it is for her to return to work. Mothers Career Choices and Patterns in Sweden Being one of the most generous welfare states, Sweden is often regarded as a role model in terms of striving for equal women rights. In fact, most Swedish women work fulltime prior to give birth and the majority of women do return to paid work (either long part-time or full-time) after the maternity leave. According to the Statistics Sweden (a leading Swedish official statistics website), there are more than 80 percent of Swedish mothers in the labour market by the year of 1999. The high return rate is probably attributed to its long paid parental leave. According to the Swedish Law, all parents (employed prior to give birth) are entitled to 12 months leave with approximately 3,600 Pounds income replacement (up to 80% of their income before childbirth) plus 90 days of Guaranteed days with 6 pounds per day. Besides, parents rights to return to labour market are guaranteed by Swedish labour regulations. (Bjornberg, 2002:34) These policies not only help women to reconcile the work and c are balance during the most difficult period (with small child under 1 year old), but also encourage women to take part in workforce after maternity work by ensuring them better chances of being employed. As a result, child under 1 year is usually taken care at home by their parents (mainly mothers). And among children aged 1-6 years, institutional care instead of home care is commonly chosen by Swedish parents as that most mothers could return to their jobs afterwards. The statistics (Statistics Sweden, 2008) shows that 86% of children aged 1-6 years are in municipal day care in the year 2007. Based on the observations, Bjornberg (2002:39) suggests that the traditional male breadwinner model with mothers as housewives is not supported in Sweden rather a dual-earner model is more common and acceptable in Sweden. The high return rate does not occur among mothers with one child but among mothers with more than one child as well. As the Swedish policy states that the parent is able to enjoy the same insured income level if the next child-birth is within 30 months of the previous child. Thus, it makes possible for mothers with more than one child to return to labour market after maternity leave without worrying about the costs and losing their working rights. It is interesting to note that many returned mothers in Sweden choose to start work as part-timers. Traditionally, part-time work often associated with characteristics such as low pay, no benefits and low status, however, part-time work in Sweden has a different meaning. The long working hours (e.g. 30 hours per week) gives part-time a non-marginalized feature in Sweden. And part-time working mothers are generally treated similarly to their full-time colleagues and able to have more autonomy in their time (Sundstrom and Duvander, 2000). Fagan and Lallement (2000:45) indicate that part-time workers have integrated into Swedish labour market and received equal treatment in labour law and wage structures. Mothers Career Choices and Patterns in the United Kingdom Pursuing to be a liberal welfare state, the U.K. government has also come up with explicit policies to reconcile paid work and family life in terms of childcare services, childcare leave and flexible working hours since 1997. (Lewis and Campbell, 2007:4) Evidence shows that the newly introduced family-friendly initiatives do have certain effects in changing the British labour market situations. The mother participation rate in the market has increased from 24% in 1979 to 67% in 1999 (Dench et al., 2002) although among returned mothers, many engage in part-time rather than full-time jobs. Statistics (Social Trends, 2005) shows that 40% of women aged sixteen to fifty-nine with children are in a part-time job. However, the part-time work has a different definition in UK compare to that of Sweden in terms of the working hours. Part-time mothers only work about 16 hours per week in U.K. (Bishop, 2004) which is much shorter than 30+ hours in Sweden. In the aspect of public childcare system , it is not as popular as that of Sweden due to the poor qualification of childcare staff in UK and a lack of funding. (Lewis and Campbell, 2007) In general, instead of the traditional male breadwinner model or Swedish dual-earner model, Britain parents are taking a one-and-a-half earner model, which fathers work long hours (48+ hours per week) while mothers work short hours (about 16 hours). (Christine and Tang, 2004) Therefore, atypical job (e.g. part-time work) and shift parenting are common in UK. (Lavalle et al., 2002) Explanations to the Patterns Found Based on the findings of both Sweden and UK, it is clear that motherhood affects womens career not only in the form of career breaks during childbirth but also in terms of the after-effects on balancing work and childcare. There are several similarities found among working mothers in both countries, for instance, both countries have a relatively high mother return rate. However, part-time mothers in Sweden are seemingly to enjoy a better benefit coverage, status and pay compared to mothers in U.K. In the following part of the essay, the reasons account for the different patterns observed will be discussed and whether the high return rate reflects womens true preference between work and family will be explored. According to Hakim (2000), the difference in work and care decision made by mothers is determined by each womans preference. However, many researchers criticize Hakims statement by showing other factors which restricting womens decisions, such as the income level of the household, institutional context, social norm and womens education level. Household Income Level Household income level directly limits mothers decision on work and care. According to Vlasblom and Schippers (2006), mothers are more likely to go back to labour market if the benefit for participation is larger than its opportunity costs. For instance, most mothers in Sweden choose to work as womens income in a household is as important as their partners in order to maintain a high living standard as close as possible to those of households without children.( Bjornberg, 2002:36) In the case of U.K., the decrease in family subsidy in tax system during the 1990s has made childcare more costly, (Sainsbury, 1999) as a result, many British mothers chose to return to workforce during that time. However, unlike Sweden, high quality and affordable public childcare is not widely spread in U.K. According to Taylors survey (2003), there are only 8 % of organizations offering financial assistance with childcare costs and 3% organizations providing childcare for their employees. Thus, the lack of childcare service and the high costs associated with childcare outsourcing for working parents has explained the increasing number of part-time working mothers and the shifting childcare arrangement between parents in U.K. Social Norms Under the traditional male breadwinner model, mothers are expected to become housewives while fathers will be the only income source for the household. However, as time passes by, the social norm has been changed and working mothers are more acceptable in both countries (Vlasblom and Schippers, 2006). And in Sweden, women to have a gainful employment before childbirth is essential as the replacement income during 12 months maternity leave is determined by womens salary level prior to giving birth. Those mothers who were housewives do not receive any income benefit during the first year of child care (Bjornberg, 2002). Such policies, to a certain extent, have reinforced the womens importance in the job market and increased the acceptance of womens role as workers in general. However, in both countries, the increasing in women participation rate and social acceptance of working mothers does not match the changes in their male spouses behaviours. Gershuny (2000) points out that mens participation in unpaid work is much lower than womens participation rate in paid work. According to Elvin-Nowak and Thomsson (2001:432), fathers work schedule is considered as fixed and unalterable and mothers concern about childrens well-being more than fathers do, as a result, the negotiations come to rest between the woman and her conscience rather than between the mother and the father. Uneven distribution of domestic chores, especially childcare is still prevalent nowadays. In U.K., the long working hours of men has left the childcare to mothers mainly. Without the help from their spouses, it is more difficult for mothers to combine the work and childcare and thus, full-time work is often not an available option for many British mothers. The situation in Sweden is relativ ely better than that in U.K. due to the introduction of compulsory Daddy Month policy. However, Even in country like Sweden, fathers only spend just half the time in taking care of children as their partners do (Gornick and Meyers, 2008:318). Institutional Context Institutional context is one of the most critical factor in shaping womens work and care decision. Often, the change in mothers behaviour is as a result of change in institutional policies, such as the reduced in family subsidy mentioned above. Both British government and Swedish government are aiming to promote waged labour through its policies, like extension of maternity leave, childcare provision or flexible working-hour practices, in order to attract mothers into workforce and to increase the labour supply and tax base (OECD, 2005). However, these two countries have varied degree of success in obtaining the goal. The difference in institutional policies explains why the part-time mothers in Sweden could focus on their work better than those of U.K. First of all, the public childcare is well-developed and widely used in Sweden, therefore, most Swedish women are able to work long hour part-time or full-time job without worrying lack of proper care for their children. Besides, the introduction of Daddy Month in Sweden has increased the fathers participation in childcare task and thus, reduces the burden from mothers. According to the statistics, 77% of father in Sweden took up the whole month leave in 1995. However, the formal childcare is either too expensive or poorly organized in U.K. which forces most British mothers to care children privately and restricts their career development. Besides, the long working hours for British fathers makes sharing private childcare more difficult and often mothers have to change their working hours in order to suit their partners more rigid schedules for childcare. Thus, mothers career in U.K. is more likely to be disturbed than their counterpart in Sweden. Womens Educational Level Besides the differences in external factors, such as the policies, income and social norms, the educational level among women also affect the degree of motherhoods impacts on their careers. The educational level here not only refers to the initial education (Portela, 2001), but also the working experiences and personal capabilities a woman possesses. Elvin-Nowak and Thomsson (2001:407) suggests that mothers with different social background have different motherhood experiences and interpreted the meaning of the motherhood differently. In general, low-skilled female workers are more likely to exit the labour force for their children than those high-skilled workers (Cantillon at al., 2001). And Hofferth et al.s (1996) study is consistent with Cantillons findings, showing that high-skilled women tend to use formal childcare while low-skilled women tend to provide childcare themselves. As a result, high-skilled women are more likely to commit themselves into their work without worrying about the childcare. At the same time, with the high earnings gained from work, they are able to afford the formal childcare while for the low-skilled women who cannot afford the formal childcare with the low earnings, staying at home to look after their children becomes the only option for them. In UK, 75 percent of highly educated women with children aged under 5 years old are actively participate in paid work while only 24 percent of women without qualifications are in workforce. (EOR, 2001) Similar results are found among Swedish wo men too. Besides, Sundstrom and Duvander (2000) found that parents with higher educational level are more likely to share the domestic tasks including childcare than couples with lower educational level. Therefore, it confirms the view that women whose level of education is high is more likely to take part in work. Conclusion This essay has examined the motherhood impact on womens career choice and patterns in Sweden and the U.K. The findings show that both countries have an increasing mother participation rate. But despite of the optimistic rising working mother numbers in both countries, working mothers careers are still affected by the motherhood. Not only that full-time work option is no longer available for many mothers due to the burden of childcare, part-time working mothers are generally more difficult to concentrate on their jobs, especially in the U.K where formal provision of formal childcare system is not well-developed. Besides, possible factors, such as household income level, social norms, institutional policies and womens educational level, which restrict mothers work and care decision, are explored in the essay. However, there are many other factors which could shape the motherhoods impact on womens career, for instance, the number of children. Women with smaller family size have less car eer breaks and spend less time on childcare, thus they have better opportunity to channel their energy into paid work (Gill et al., 2000). Besides, the rising divorce rate and high teenage pregnancy rate result an increase in singe-mother families. Motherhoods impact on single mother family could be different from normal families. After analyzing the possible factors which affect working mothers careers, how their accessibility to the labour market and status could be increased is the key challenge that should be addressed. Based on Sweden and the U.K. cases, it is clear that institutional policies could a powerful tool for creating a better environment for working mothers. For instance, the Daddy Month introduced by Swedish government has been successful in tackling the unequal division of work among men and women and this policy could be learnt by other countries too. In sum, in order to increase working mothers full-time participation rate and achieve better work-life balance in the society, governments should invest more on the institutional policies. In another word, following the concept of diversity/mainstreaming, government should change the focus from trying to fit working mothers into the society to changing the society/organization/culture to embrace differences by making working mothers issue centr al to every aspect of the policy. Word: 2930

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Evita Peron Essay -- essays research papers

Evita Peron In 1949 the most familiar scene in Argentina was the one played out almost daily at the Ministry of Labor in Buenos Aires. There, under the glare of camera lights, a former radio star and movie actress, now the most powerful woman in South America, would enter her office past a crush of adoring, impoverished women and children. Evita Peron, the wife of President Juan Peron, would sit at her desk and begin one of the great rituals of Peronism, the political movement she and her husband created. It was a pageant that sustained them in power. She would patiently listen to the stories of the poor, then reach into her desk to pull out some money. Or she would turn to a minister and ask that a house be built. She would caress filthy children. She would kiss lepers, just as the saints had done. To many Argentines, Evita Peron was a flesh-and- blood saint; later, 40,000 of them would write to the pope attesting to her miracles. She was born on May 7, 1919, in Los Toldos, and baptized Maria Eva, but everyone called her Evita. Her father abandoned the family shortly after her birth. Fifteen years of poverty followed and, in early 1935, the young Evita fled her stifling existence to go to Buenos Aires. Perhaps, as some have said, she fell in love with a tango singer who was passing through. She wanted to be an actress, and in the next few years supported herself with bit parts, photo sessions for titillating magazines and stints as an attractive judge of tango competitions. She began frequenting the offices of a movie magazine, talking herself up for mention in its pages. When, in 1939, she was hired as an actress in a radio company, she discovered a talent for playing heroines in the fantasy world of radio soap opera. This was a period of political uncertainty in Argentina, yet few people were prepared for the military coup that took place in June 1943. Among the many measures instituted by the new government was the censorship of radio soap operas. Quickly adapting to the new environment, Evita approached the officer in charge of allocating airtime, Colonel Anibal Imbert. She seduced him, and Imbert approved a new project Evita had in mind, a radio series called Heroines of History. Years later, people would say that Evita had been... ...cancer had spread. In June 1952, Peron's congress named Evita the Spiritual Leader of the Nation. Her own final contribution to that deification came in her will, in which she wrote that she wanted "the poor, the old, the children, and the workers to continue writing to me as they did in my lifetime." She died on July 26, 1952, at the age of 33. A specialist was brought in to embalm the body and make it "definitively incorruptible." Evita's body lay in state for 13 days-and even then the crowds showed no sign of diminishing. In the decades that followed, Peronism continued to occupy a place in Argentine political life, taking the form mainly of anti-government terrorism. In 1971, after a number of demands by terrorists, the Argentine government agreed to return Evita's body. It was shipped to Peron in Spain. That year, Peron was allowed to return to Argentina; two years later he was president again. He died in office, and it was his wife and successor, Isabel, who brought Evita's body back to Argentina, in the hope that the aura of a saint would again dazzle the public.

Friday, July 19, 2019

Pros and Cons of Weight Reducing Diets Essay -- Health Nutrition Diet

Pros and Cons of Weight Reducing Diets   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The article â€Å"Health Advantages and Disadvantages of Weight-Reducing Diets: A Computer Analysis and Critical Review† outlines eight diets that were examined and how the researchers and doctors looked at the potential long term effects of each one. The diets examined were Atkins, Protein Power, Sugar Busters, Zone, ADA Exchange, High-Fiber Fitness, Pritikin and Ornish. The research team created formulas using computer software, menu plans with recommended snacks and looking at the food pyramid to estimate coronary heart disease (a disease of the heart and arteries that blocks blood flow to the heart). They found that diets high in protein and fat, protein being a complex organic molecule necessary for the proper functioning of an organism; and low in carbohydrates, an organic compound that serves as a major energy source, produce a greater risk for coronary heart disease and diabetes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã¢â‚¬Å"Over 50% of Americans are overweight.† This has led to the creation of many different diets. Some of these diets promote healthy eating and long-term weight loss while others are just fad diets with unsafe recommendations. It is suggested by expert panels that people should consume about 30% fat, from which only 10% can be saturated fat (a fat of animal origin) and less than 300 mg. of cholesterol daily. Cholesterol is a white substance found in animal tissues that serves the cell membranes.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  The first thing the researchers did was to identify which diets were currently popular. They then looked at those diets that have been around for a long time. Each diet examined was different. The Atkins diet states that a high-fat ... ...tein Power diets are very high in total and saturated fat compared to current dietary guidelines. Long-term uses of these diets for weight maintenance are likely to significantly increase cholesterol concentrations and risks for coronary heart disease.† Diets that are higher in carbohydrates and fiber actually lower these risks. High fat diets do have short-term weight loss but the potential hazards for worsening the risk for heart disease and cholesterol problems override the short-term benefits. Sources Consulted:     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚     Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Anderson, James, MD. â€Å"Health Advantages and Disadvantages of Weight-Reducing Diets: A Computer Analysis and Critical Review.† American College of Nutrition 19 (2000): 578-590.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Dictionary. 21 October 2004. Lexico Publishing Group, LLC. 14 May 1995. .   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  

arab women :: essays research papers

For many generations, women vowed to give their all, and instead of receiving the equal treatment of love and appreciation, they were oppressed and degraded. In Egypt, a woman did not have the right to divorce herself; therefore, she had to put up with all the humiliation, mistreatment, unfairness, and inequality everyday. Today, women are celebrating the new law of â€Å"Khul’†, which gives the woman the right to divorce herself with or without her oppressor’s consent, but the question is: does the woman become really free? In our parents days, women had truly suffered extremely damaging marriages, being totally helpless and with no power. Some women tried to use their parents, others used the police, and some just accepted bad marriages as their fate. In the cases where the husband treats his wife aggressively by beating and causing injuries, the woman can provide evidence by police records and hospital certificates, but men always refute these evidence by saying that the wife caused these injuries herself. Thanks to the khul’ law women can finally move a step forward in gaining their rights, while moving closer to equality with men. However, we also see that many other factors still affect a woman’s decision of whether or not to get a divorce, and some consequences of freely taking this decision. In the Egyptian society, the marriage relationship is a very sacred one. It assembles between a man and a woman who are supposed to have common characteristics and their relation to be built on mutual understanding. Accordingly, almost all couples experience a happy and comfortable life in their earliest years of marriage. However, after they become accustomed to each other, the defects of each begin to appear and they may reach a point where they are unable to tolerate each other, let alone live and raise a family together. So, problems arise and lead to divorce. Yet, divorce is extremely problematic for women for several reasons. First, women’s families and the society do not accept divorce easily. Second, men have the right of divorce whenever they want. Third, according to the old divorce law, women used to face many problems in courts to obtain divorce. But according to the new law khul’, women will be able to obtain their freedom easily, and they will be able to f ace their families and society by the force of law and Islamic Shariaa.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

Blood Sports (Debate) Essay

Blood sports should not be banned; whatever problems there are with the sport can be fixed with reforms. The World Health Organization has called for tighter regulation, including â€Å"Simple rules, such as requiring medical clearance, national passports to prevent players from fighting under more than one name, restricting fights for fixed periods after knockouts, requiring that ringside physicians be paid by the state and not the promoter, and making sure that the players are aware of the potential long-term consequence of blood sports, may help protect them to some degree. †The Australian Medical Association additionally â€Å"recommends that media coverage should be subject to control codes similar to those which apply to television screening of violence. †Finally, the World Medical Association suggests that all matches should have a ring physician authorized to stop the fight at any time. It has been reported that no safety regulations would be effective if head blows remain – however such authors incorrectly apportion blame on boxing for a group of diseases known as Parkinson’s syndrome. Blood sports can result in chronic traumatic neurological conditions if fighters are not well matched, and fight without regulations in regard to their exposure. Boxing cannot cause Parkinson’s disease or other conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease as those are genetic conditions – so to include them together as one set of conditions is incorrect and misleading. About 80% of deaths are caused by head, brain, and neck injuries, so the removal of the head as a scoring region may make a huge difference to the injury outcomes for this sport. However it would also change the very nature of the sport; and may mean people won’t participate in it. Ultimately, governments should do what they can to make blood sports as safe as possible, without losing the essence of the sport or banning it entirely. ————————————————- (Banning blood sports would force people to channel their aggression into more harmful, violent activities) There is no conclusive scientific evidence linking increased contact sport participation with being more violent in social settings. Such statements make it sound as thought we would have not violence in society if all contact sport was removed – and we all know that is untrue. Blood sports isn’t about violent aggression, it is about controlled aggression – this is very different to violent behaviors. In a report on â€Å"violent† sports in schools, conducted by the Lance Armstrong Foundation, a martial-arts instructor explained, â€Å"Contact and combat sports allow students to deal with their aggression in a safe environment, rather than in the context of the classroom or school hallway. †This type of outlet is not only important for youth, but for adults as well. Jason Brick said, â€Å"Positive Views on Violence In Sports,† Live strong, January 7, 2011, accessed July 13, 2011, With /proposition (The Effect of blood sports on the viewers) Blood Sports have been around for decades. Viewing violence generally triggers or serves in the increase of aggression of an individual. Sports such as wrestling (smack down) and Ultimate Fighter Competition (UFC) are bloody sports and have mostly negative effects on those who watch them. The objective of these two sports is to beat an individual into unconsciousness, make them tap out by inflicting pain, if none of these is accomplished within a time frame, the match is to be stopped and the judges decide who wins. Many children, teenagers, and even adults tend to try and imitate a knock out or combos that were seen performed at one of these fights onto an individual in an uncontrolled environment whether it is their sibling, friend, coworker, or a stranger for different reasons that includes but is not limited to a misunderstanding or horse playing. Watching this sport leaves the viewer psychologically aggressive. For example, if someone watches a match and gets into a fight with another person later on, that person is more likely to use a technique he saw during the fight, and since there is no referee to stop the fight in case of suffocation or tap-out, the victim is more likely to bleed, pass out or even dies. During the 1980’s, two men were in a bar discussing the Marvin Haggler and Sugar Ray Leonard fight that had occurred several days before, and in the process on trying to show exactly how one of the punch landed, both men went outside, drawing a crowd with them. The demonstration turned tragic when one of the men landed a punch to the jaw of the other, and such was the power of the blow, that the victim fell, hit his head on the pavement and started to bleed, and had to be buried a few weeks later. Seeing and permitting violence to be seen makes it seem normal and legal when in fact it is not normal and it is horrible, but here is where lies another problem which is called desensitization. Many years ago when a horrible scene was about to be portrayed on your television set, there would first appear a window saying ‘the images that you are about to see might injure the sensibility of certain people’ or words to that effect. Well, have you noticed that now they no longer even bother showing that little window? It’s as if the media know that human kind are used to everything by now. That nothing is going to affect them that much. So what does this show? It shows that us human beings are getting desensitized to everything and when that happens it also means that we don’t get so emotional about anything anymore and so consequently don’t fight any more either in order to strive for a change. We have all come to a point where nothing moves us that much anymore. (Pain and Injury as the Price of blood sports) Many people think about sports in a paradoxical way: They accept violence in sports, but the injuries caused by that violence make them uneasy. They seem to want violence without consequences— like the ?ctionalized violence they see in the media and video games in which characters engage in brutality without being seriously or permanently injured. However, blood sports are real, and it causes real pain, injury, disability, and even death (Dater, 2005; Farber, 2004; Leahy, 2008; Rice, 2005; Smith, 2005b; Young, 2004a). Ron Rice, an NFL player whose career ended when he tackled an opponent, discusses the real consequences of blood sports. The brutal body contact of the tackle left him temporarily paralyzed and permanently disabled. He remembers that â€Å"before I hit the ground, I knew my career was over. . . . My body froze. I was like a tree that had been cut down, teetering, then crashing, unable to break my fall. † Research on pain and injury among athletes helps us understand that blood sports have real consequences. Studies indicate that professional sports involving brutal body contact and borderline violence are among the most dangerous workplaces in the occupational world. The same could be said about high-pro? le power and performance intercollegiate sports in which 80 percent of male and female athletes sustain at least one serious injury while playing their sports and nearly 70 percent are disabled for two or more weeks. Research shows a close connection between dominant ideas about masculinity and the high rate of injuries in many sports. Ironically, some power and performance sports are organized so that players feel that their manhood is up for grabs. Men who de? ne masculinity in terms of physically dominating others often use violence in sports as an expression of this code of manhood. Until they critically examine issues related to gender and the organization of their sports, they will mistakenly de? ne violence as a source of rewards rather than a source of chronic pain and disabilities that constrain and threaten their lives.

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Sm C102 Quiz #2

squ are up research Which of the future(a) models uses a formal model of the sequence of strides in a problem and the conditions and consequences of each step?Your consequence Decision treesCorrect pass The way to build in great flexibility in your workers is to do which of the by-line?Your coiffure Provide a broader fly the coop of trainingIncorrect doubtfulness If the silk hat operating level of a ingredient of equipment is at a drift of four hundred units per time of day and the substantial output during an bit is 300 units, which of the undermenti one and only(a)d is the capacity weaken?Your resolving power 75 percentCorrect drumhead The cogency to rapidly and inexpensively switch product from one product to a nonher enables what are sometimes referred to asYour Answer Economies of scopeCorrect forefront cleverness preparedness involving acquisition or disposal of furbish up assets such as buildings, equipment or facilities is considered as which one of the adjacent planning horizons?Your Answer Long-rangeCorrect head Capacity planning involving hiring, layoffs, some new tooling, insignificant equipment purchases, and subcontracting is considered as which one of the following planning horizons?Your Answer Intermediate rangeCorrect wonder If the actual output of a piece of equipment during an hour is 500 units and its best operating level is at a rate of cd units per hour, which of the following is the capacity utilization rate?Your Answer 1. 25Correct Question A attend to menstruumchart uses which of the following symbols to represent tasks or operations in a watercourse diagram?Your Answer RectangleCorrect Question A wreak flowchart uses symbols to represent which of the following?Your Answer Flows of material or customersCorrect Question According to Littles law, which of the following can be used to estimate inventory?Your Answer Throughput rate times flow timeCorrect Question A change flowchart uses which of the following symbols to represent a decision focalize in a flow diagram?Your Answer DiamondCorrect Question A wait on flowchart uses which of the following symbols to represent memory areas or queues in a flow diagram?Your Answer Inverted triangleCorrect Question To reduce process throughput time you mogul try which of the following actions?Your Answer transfer the sequence of activitiesCorrect Question An advantage of a make-to-stock process is which of the following?Your Answer quick delivery of a standard productCorrect Question Which of the following basic types of process structures is one which equipment or work processes are staged according to the progressive steps by which the product is made?Your Answer manufacturing lineCorrect Question Assume a fixed be for a process of $15,000. The variant cost to produce each unit of product is $10 and the selling harm for the finished product is $25.Which of the following is the fare of units that has to be produced and sold t o break-even?Your Answer 1,000 unitsCorrect Question Which of the following is not considered a major process flow structure?Your Answer FabricationCorrect Question A difference between project and continuous flow categories of process flow structures is which two of the following?Your Answer The size of the productCorrect Question Which of the following is not a basic type of process structure?Your Answer Product-process matrixCorrect Question You are hired as a advisor to decide if your client should purchase a new, highly specialized, piece of equipment. The product to be produced by this equipment is forecast to have a total worldwide demand of 15,000 units everyplace the entire product life. The initial investing to acquire and install the equipment is $256,000. The variable cost to produce each unit lead be $15 and the selling expenditure for the finished product will be $30. Which of the following best describes the situation the home is facing?Your Answer The companys total border will be less than its coronation

Tuesday, July 16, 2019

Realism In International Affairs Essay

Realism In International Affairs Essay

Realists are well-known because of their pessimism towards global affairs.This theory can be regarded as a prescription to be followed by politicians and states or as a description of current affairs of the state or politician pursuing self-interest. Realism in politics is often defined as a principle of power supremacy, and it has a long history since the ancient times. It was reflected in Peloponnesian War by Thucydides. This theory was also touched by Machiavelli in his writing The Prince, as well as by other outstanding philosophers like Spinoza, Hobbes and Rousseau.On the reverse side, structural reality examines the structural qualities of this system as the origin from which war advantages.(Ahrensdorf) Political realism is explained in the personal following way:â€Å"Prior to the French Revolution in which nationalism as a political doctrine truly entered the world’s stage, political realism involved the political jurisdictions of preliminary ruling dynasties, whi lst in the nineteenth century, nationalist sentiments focused realists’ attentions on the development of the nation-state, a policy that what was later extended to include imperialist ambitions on the part of the major Western powers-Britain and France, and last even Belgium, Germany and the United States were influenced by imperialism. † (Viotti, Kauppi).Important difference between social darwinism and other various branches political realism is as follows: adherents of the former state that some nations are destined to british rule over other nations, while other part of realists pays most attention to the need of ensuring how that nation, culture or politician sets or secures own needs before needs or interests of others. Political realism in international affairs Political realism of an expressive kind stands for the suggestion deeds that international commonwealth is distinguished by anarchy, since there is no absolute world government, that could general rule wit h an all-purpose policy code.

Its normal that realism is not really realistic.17, ‘Of Commonwealth, cited in Griffiths, O’Callaghan). Respectively, without any supreme international force, nations treat each other with hostility or fear, and it damages the system. Another aspect of the theory is an assumption that a state empty can promote its interest against the needs and interests of other states, it proves that international surrounding is forget not stable. Any order is affected if states compete for the same need, and under such circumstances, as the realists state, the nation may rely on itself only.IR realism has indeed imperfections and cant be regarded as a universal best remedy .† (Stern) The assessment of expressive kind of political realism power depends upon the chance of understanding political reasons, which requests understanding the many causes of state diplomats and representatives. The pattern of officers’ relations, their motives and actions is complex. Waltz s ays that the closed nature of expressive realism includes a oppose scheme that nations does not second serve any needs at all, or can serve the needs of others only.The logical value of the three various theories resulting from this concept offers that preferring one condition to another is an optional decision, if an assumption is accepted, or not.

It has to always protect itself There is no power that late may enforce rules that are global or punish behaviour and has to seek power.Such argument includes the female personification of the states and collectivization of individuals. Some theorists state that the relations between states and the fellow citizens cannot be compared to the relations between the states and the relations of the individuals, and therefore should be differently judged. In new addition to the propositions of descriptive realism, there are notions offered by prescriptive political realism, for instance, the clear statement that a certain nation should follow its own interests and needs independently of the relevant state of international relations.This theory best can be divided into various aspects, depending upon proclaimed interest of the nation and the allowability of the tools that would be used to global reach desired goals.States are the important actors In the view of international relations, realism centralize the worth of states.Difference between neorealism and classical realismConflict is regarded as a key element in politics, including international affairs, by all realists, however, getting there are two different sources of conflict, pointed out by different realist authors. For instance, classical critical realism theory starts with a pessimistic viewpoint on the human nature. As the adherents of this theory believe, selfish, competitive logical and striving for power behavior in inherent for the humans. Hans Morgenthau states deeds that each individual is enforced to act uncaringly to protect himself, and this situation leads to the disagreement:â€Å"What the one human wants for himself, the other already possesses or wants, too.

A state will stay in a place.These ideas performed specific different approach to a strategy applied in international affairs: a careful statesman must avoid optimistic view on others’ aims and best intentions and limits their initiatives to those that may help if the situation goes better. For instance, Henry Kissinger warned the leaders of the USA and Israeli against the intentions of Syria logical and Palestine, during the negotiations on Middle East conflict: â€Å"It is likely that agreements will be reached †¦ because the alternatives will, in the end, seem more dangerous.But when this happens, we must avoid euphoria†¦. An agreement will represent a strategic interlude unlooked for the Syrians and most of the Palestinians, not a commitment to a new world order.e.Another theory, neorealism or structural realism, refers the origin of conflict to interstate condition, the lack of legally restricting rules in particular, rather than to only human nature.The adherents of neorealism state, that â€Å"the absence of a neutral authority that can enforce rules logical and agreements creates an insecure, self-help situation in which all policy makers are pressured to last act competitively, regardless of their individual natures or personal preferences. † (Kegley, Wittkopf) This statement is not new, it appeared in the 17th century in the work of Thomas Hobbes. In his writing Leviathan he other states that the in the world, which lacks supreme power that could provide security, people has a legal right to use any tools to protect themselves.

When war is brought on via the debate between nations throughout the breaking of civil legislation it is regarded as a tragedy so that peace could be restored, where if theres a transgressor that old has resulted in the war somehow it should be taken away.(Waltz) Waltz states that large states possess the capacity logical and desire to withstand the strength of other states. This results, as he sees it, in a tendency of competitiveness among states independently of the views of their leaders concerning domestic policy. Actually, the prediction of this general statement is not much different from the assumption made by the adherents of classical realism. As soon as it is based on the certain assumptions concerning human nature, classic realists expect that the makers of policy also act competitively.It may in fact be attained only by using intimidation and force.As soon as the states’ interests come across in conflict, it is expected that leaders pay much attention to the ir positions in power.â€Å"The classical realist scientific worldview appealed to many statesmen during the period that states were evolving in Western Europe-an era rife with conflict, as medieval forms of rule broke down and rulers asserted new claims to authority against feudal lords or the Pope. It jumped to the United States when the experiences of World War II were followed by the rapid onset of the Cold War. Neorealism later emerged when the bipolarity of the Cold War drew analysts’ attention to the effects of the structure of the interstate system†.

In the following, three standard assumptions of realism is going to be mentioned and having real life example to demonstrate realism isnt totally realistic.It is based upon the ideas of Kennan and Morgenthau, including the concepts of diplomacy purposes and international order. It proclaims that a global order is needed to be agreed by the largest states, to provide the promotion of their interests and reduce the threat of terrorists. Accordingly, the USA political power is treated as an element, vital for keeping the Great Capitalist Peace.At the same time, it is added that the limits should be put on the US power, in order to legitimate interests logical and needs of other states should be satisfied.Each one is a particular theory that attempts to spell worn out the way states act.(Lieven, Hulsman) Sources Waltz, K. N. Structural Realism after the Cold War.International Security.

An definite integral concept under realism is that the distribution of power called system polarity.McGraw Hill: NY, 1993. Stern, G. The Structure of kidney International Society. London: Pinter Publishers, 2000.Change in the system will induce change .Oxford University Press, 2004 Griffiths, M. , O’Callaghan, T. International Relations: The Key Concepts. London, Routledge, 2002 Kegley, C.